Tempering is almost always required after hardening (both in an atmosphere furnace as well as in vacuum, as described further), to reduce the hardness (and brittleness) to a desirable level.

The expression “conventional tempering” is used here to differentiate the process from “vacuum tempering”.



  • Reduces the stress after quenching
  • Reduces the brittleness generated by only hardening/quenching
  • Increases material toughness
  • Precise control of the hardness level


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